2nd millennium

New WorldAmerican RevolutionIslamic conquest of ConstantinopleBlack DeathNapoleon BonaparteTelephoneAeroplaneMoon landingAtomic BombLight BulbGutenberg Bible
From left, clockwise: in 1492, Italian navigator Christopher Columbus arrives in North America; the American Revolution; the Islamic conquest of Constantinople; the Atomic Bomb from World War II; an alternate source of light, the light bulb; for the first time, a human being sets foot on the moon in 1969 during the Apollo 11 moon mission; aeroplanes become the most-used way of transport through the skies; Napoleon Bonaparte, in the early 19th century, affects France and Europe with expansionism and modernization; Alexander Graham Bell's telephone; in 1348, the Black Death kills in just two years over 100 million people worldwide, and over half of Europe. (Background: An excerpt from the Gutenberg Bible, the first major book printed in the West using movable type, in the 1450s)

The second millennium of the Anno Domini or Common Era was a millennium spanning the years 1001 to 2000 (11th to 20th centuries).

It encompassed the High and Late Middle Ages of the Old World, the Islamic Golden Age and the period of Renaissance, followed by the Early Modern period, characterized by the Wars of Religion in Europe, the Age of Enlightenment, the Age of Discovery and the colonial period. Its final two centuries coincide with Modern history, characterized by industrialization, the rise of nation states, the rapid development of science, widespread education, and universal health care and vaccinations in the Western world. The 20th century saw increasing globalization, most notably the two World Wars and the subsequent formation of the United Nations. 20th-century technology includes powered flight, television and semiconductor technology, including integrated circuits. The term "Great Divergence" was coined to refer the unprecedented cultural and political ascent of the Western world in the second half of the millennium, emerging by the 18th century as the most powerful and wealthy world civilization, having eclipsed Qing China and the Islamic World.

World population grew without precedent over the millennium, from about 310 million in 1000 to about 6 billion in 2000. The population growth rate increased dramatically during this time; world population approximately doubled to 600 million by 1700, and doubled more than three more times by 2000, ultimately reaching about 1.8% per year in the second half of the 20th century.

Political history

Middle Ages

11th century, 1143, 1400, 1495
Europe
Near East
see also Crusades, Mongol invasions
North Africa
East Asia
India
Sahel / Sudan and Sub-Saharan Africa
Pre-Columbian Americas

Early Modern period

Europe
Colonial empires
Asia
sub-Saharan Africa

Modern history

Europe
Asia
Americas
Africa

Cultural and technological history

Calendar

The Julian calendar was used in Europe at the beginning of the millennium, and all countries that once used the Julian calendar had adopted the Gregorian calendar by the end of it. For this reason, the end date of the 2nd millennium is usually calculated based on the Gregorian calendar, while the beginning date is based on the Julian calendar (or occasionally the proleptic Gregorian calendar).

In the late 1990s, there was a dispute as to whether the millennium should be taken to end on December 31, 1999, or December 31, 2000. Stephen Jay Gould at the time argued there is no objective way of deciding this question. Associated Press reported that the third millennium began on 1 January 2001, but also reported that celebrations in the US were generally more subdued at the beginning of 2001, compared to the beginning of 2000. Many public celebrations for the end of the second millennium were held on December 31, 1999 – January 1, 2000—with a few people marking the end of the millennium a year later.

Centuries and decades

11th century1000s1010s1020s1030s1040s1050s1060s1070s1080s1090s
12th century1100s1110s1120s1130s1140s1150s1160s1170s1180s1190s
13th century1200s1210s1220s1230s1240s1250s1260s1270s1280s1290s
14th century1300s1310s1320s1330s1340s1350s1360s1370s1380s1390s
15th century1400s1410s1420s1430s1440s1450s1460s1470s1480s1490s
16th century1500s1510s1520s1530s1540s1550s1560s1570s1580s1590s
17th century1600s1610s1620s1630s1640s1650s1660s1670s1680s1690s
18th century1700s1710s1720s1730s1740s1750s1760s1770s1780s1790s
19th century1800s1810s1820s1830s1840s1850s1860s1870s1880s1890s
20th century1900s1910s1920s1930s1940s1950s1960s1970s1980s1990s
Uses material from the Wikipedia article 2nd millennium, released under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license.