Army National Guard

The Army National Guard (ARNG), in conjunction with the Air National Guard, is an organized militia force and a federal military reserve force of the United States Army. They are simultaneously part of two different organizations: the Army National Guard of each state, most territories, and the District of Columbia (also referred to as the Militia of the United States), and the Army National Guard of the United States (as part of the United States National Guard). The Army National Guard is divided into subordinate units stationed in each U.S. state and territory, as well the District of Columbia, operating under their respective governors and governor-equivalents.

The foundation for what became the Army National Guard occurred in the city of Salem, Massachusetts, in 1692, the first time that a regiment of militia drilled for the common defense of a multi-community area.

Activation

The Army National Guard as currently authorized and organized operates under Title 10 of the United States Code when under federal control, and Title 32 of the United States Code and applicable state laws when under state control. The Army National Guard may be called up for active duty by the state or territorial governors to help respond to domestic emergencies and disasters, such as those caused by hurricanes, floods, and earthquakes, as well as civil disorder. The District of Columbia Army National Guard is a federal militia, controlled by the President of the United States with authority delegated to the Secretary of Defense, and through him to the Secretary of the Army.

Members or units of the Army National Guard may be ordered, temporarily or indefinitely, into the service of the United States. If mobilized for federal service, the member or unit becomes part of the Army National Guard of the United States, which is a reserve component of the United States Army. Individuals volunteering for active federal service may do so subject to the consent of their governors. Governors generally cannot veto involuntary activations of individuals or units for federal service, either for training or national emergency. (See Perpich v. Department of Defense.)

The President may also call up members and units of the Army National Guard, in its status as the militia of the several states, to repel invasion, suppress rebellion, or enforce federal laws. The Army National Guard of the United States is one of two organizations administered by the National Guard Bureau, the other being the Air National Guard of the United States. The Director of the Army National Guard is the head of the organization, and reports to the Chief of the National Guard Bureau. Because the Army National Guard is both the militia of the several states and a federal reserve component of the Army, neither the Chief of the National Guard Bureau nor the Director of the Army National Guard "commands" it. This operational command authority is performed in each state or territory by the State Adjutant General, and in the District of Columbia by the Commanding General of the District of Columbia National Guard when a unit is in its militia status. While under federal activation, the operational command authority is transferred to the commanders of the unified combatant commands, who command all U.S. forces within their area of responsibility. The Chief of the National Guard Bureau and the Director of the Army National Guard serve as the channel of communications between the Department of the Army and the Army National Guard in each state and territory, and administer federal programs, policies, and resources for the National Guard.

The Army National Guard's portion of the president's proposed federal budget for Fiscal Year 2018 is approximately $16.2 billion to support an end strength of 343,000, including appropriations for personnel pay and allowance, facilities maintenance, construction, equipment maintenance and other activities.

History

ARNG recruits arriving at Fort Jackson for BCT

Prominent members

U.S. Presidents

Of the 45 individuals to serve as President of the United States as of 2021, 33 had military experience. Of those 33, 21 served in the militia or Army National Guard.

(Note: President George W. Bush served in the National Guard in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and he was the first Air National Guard member to attain the presidency.)

Units and formations

Deployable Army units are organized as table of organization and equipment (TOE) or modified table of organization (MTOE) organizations. Non-deployable units, such as a state's joint force headquarters or regional training institute are administered as table of distribution and allowance (TDA) units.

Commands

Divisions

In addition to many deployable units which are non-divisional, the Army National Guard's deployable units include eight Infantry divisions. These divisions, their subordinate brigades or brigades with which the divisions have a training oversight relationship, and the states represented by the largest units include:

Multifunctional Support Brigades

The Army National Guard fields 37 multifunctional support brigades.

Maneuver Enhancement Brigades

Field Artillery Brigades

Sustainment Brigades

Military Intelligence Brigades

Functional Support Brigades & Groups

Engineer Brigades

Air Defense Artillery Brigades

Theater Tactical Signal Brigades

Military Police Brigades

Theater and Combat Aviation Brigades

Other brigades

Other Groups

  • 19th Special Forces Group (19th SFG) (UT ARNG)
  • 20th Special Forces Group (20th SFG) (AL ARNG)
  • 111th Explosive Ordnance Disposal Group (111th EODG) (AL ARNG)
  • 56th Theater Information Operations Group (56th TIOG) (WA ARNG)
  • 71st Theater Information Operations Group (71st TIOG) (TX ARNG)
  • 204th Theater Airfield Operations Group (204th TAOG) (LA ARNG)
  • 1100th Theater Aviation Sustainment Maintenance Group (1100th TASMG) (MD ARNG)
  • 1106th Theater Aviation Sustainment Maintenance Group (1106th TASMG) (CA ARNG)
  • 1107th Theater Aviation Sustainment Maintenance Group (1107th TASMG) (MO ARNG)
  • 1108th Theater Aviation Sustainment Maintenance Group (1108th TASMG) (MS ARNG)
  • 1109th Theater Aviation Sustainment Maintenance Group (1109th TASMG) (CT ARNG)
  • 42nd Regional Support Group (42nd RSG) (NJ ARNG)
  • 50th Regional Support Group (50th RSG) (FL ARNG)
  • 109th Regional Support Group (109th RSG) (SD ARNG)
  • 115th Regional Support Group (115th RSG) (CA ARNG)
  • 120th Regional Support Group (120th RSG) (ME ARNG)
  • 139th Regional Support Group (139th RSG) (LA ARNG)
  • 143rd Regional Support Group (143rd RSG) (CT ARNG)
  • 151st Regional Support Group (151st RSG) (MA ARNG)
  • 191st Regional Support Group (191st RSG) (PR ARNG)
  • 198th Regional Support Group (198th RSG) (AZ ARNG)
  • 201st Regional Support Group (201st RSG) (GA ARNG)
  • 213th Regional Support Group (213th RSG) (PA ARNG)
  • 272nd Regional Support Group (272nd RSG) (MI ARNG)
  • 297th Regional Support Group (297th RSG) (AK ARNG)
  • 329th Regional Support Group (329th RSG) (VA ARNG)
  • 347th Regional Support Group (347th RSG) (MN ARNG)
  • 635th Regional Support Group (635th RSG) (KS ARNG)
  • 734th Regional Support Group (734th RSG) (IA ARNG)
  • 1889th Regional Support Group (1889th RSG) (MT ARNG)

Regular Army – Army National Guard Partnership

In 2016, the Army and the Army National Guard began a training and readiness initiative that aligned some Army brigades with National Guard division headquarters, and some National Guard brigades with Army division headquarters. Among others, this program included the National Guard's 86th Infantry Brigade Combat Team becoming affiliated with the Army's 10th Mountain Division and the National Guard's 1st Battalion, 143rd Infantry Regiment affiliating with the Army's 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team. In addition, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division began an affiliation with the National Guard's 36th Infantry Division.

In addition, United States Army Reserve units participating in the program include:

Army units partnering with Army National Guard headquarters include:

By state

The Army and Air National Guard in each state are headed by the State Adjutant General. The Adjutant General (TAG) is the de facto commander of a state's military forces, and reports to the state governor.

Legacy units and formations

Shoulder sleeve insignia of the 47th Infantry Division, inactivated in 1991
Shoulder sleeve insignia of the 50th Armored Division, inactivated in 1993

Several units have been affected by Army National Guard reorganizations. Some have been renamed or inactivated. Some have had subordinate units reallocated to other commands. A partial list of inactivated major units includes:

Leadership

National Guard Bureau organizational chart depicting command and reporting relationships
Army National Guard staff organizational chart

Upon the creation of the United States Air Force in 1947, the National Guard Bureau was organized into two divisions; Army National Guard and Air National Guard. Each were headed by a major general who reported to the chief of the National Guard Bureau. The head of the Army National Guard was originally established as the chief of the Army Division at the National Guard Bureau. The position was downgraded to brigadier general in 1962 due to force reduction. It was renamed to Director of the Army National Guard and elevated back to major general in 1970. The position was later elevated to the rank of lieutenant general in 2001. The Army National Guard is also authorized a deputy director which was originally established as a brigadier general office in 1970. It was elevated to the rank of major general in 2006.

The director of the Army National Guard oversees a staff which aids in planning and day-to-day organization and management. In addition to a chief of staff, the Director's staff includes several special staff members, including a chaplain and protocol and awards specialists. It also includes a primary staff, which is organized as directorates, divisions, and branches. The directorates of the Army National Guard staff are arranged along the lines of a typical American military staff: G-1 for personnel; G-2 for intelligence; G-3 for plans, operations and training; G-4 for logistics; G-5 for strategic plans, policy and communications; G-6 for communications; and G-8 for budgets and financial management.

List of chiefs and directors

See also

Comparable organizations

External links

Uses material from the Wikipedia article Army National Guard, released under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license.