Brixi was born in Prague, the son of composer Šimon Brixi. He received his musical education at the Piarist Gymnasium in Kosmonosy. His teachers included Václav Kalous, a significant composer himself.
In 1749 Brixi left Kosmonosy and returned to Prague, where he worked as an organist at several churches. In 1759 he was appointed Kapellmeister of St Vitus Cathedral, thus attaining, at age 27, the highest musical position in the city; this office he held till his early death. He wrote some 290 church works (of the most varied type), cantatas and oratorios, chamber compositions, and orchestral compositions. He was a prolific composer of music for the liturgy, and wrote more than 100 masses, vespers and motets, among others. He also composed secular music such as oratorios and incidental music, concertos and symphonies. His organ concertos, which have been recorded several times each, are his best-known pieces today.
Brixi was an important composer at the junction between Baroque and the Classical period. Brixi's style is distinguished from that of his contemporaries by its fresh melodic writing, vivacious rhythm and lively bass lines, and from that of his predecessors by its simple yet effective instrumentation. During his lifetime his music was widely disseminated in Bohemia and Moravia.
- Missa integra in d minor
- Missa aulica, missa brevis in C
- Opus patheticum de septem doloribus Beatae Mariae Virginis
- Organ Concerto in D major
- Organ Concerto in F major
- Judas Iscariothes - Oratorium pro die sacro Parasceves
- Missa solemnis in D major - mass for solo, choir, orchestra and organ
- Litanie de seto Benedieto
- Confiteor tibi Domine
- Sinfonia in D
- Bitevní sinfonie
- Fuga in A minor
- Pastoral in C major
- Preludium In C major
- Regina coeli