Prix de Rome

Palazzo Mancini, Rome, the seat of the Académie since 1725. Etching by Giovanni Battista Piranesi, 1752.
The Villa Medici as it looks today.

The Prix de Rome (pronounced [pʁi də ʁɔm]) or Grand Prix de Rome was a French scholarship for arts students, initially for painters and sculptors, that was established in 1663 during the reign of Louis XIV of France. Winners were awarded a bursary that allowed them to stay in Rome for three to five years at the expense of the state. The prize was extended to architecture in 1720, music in 1803, and engraving in 1804. The prestigious award was abolished in 1968 by André Malraux, the Minister of Culture, following the May 68 riots.

History

The Prix de Rome was initially created for painters and sculptors in 1663 in France, during the reign of Louis XIV. It was an annual bursary for promising artists having proved their talents by completing a very difficult elimination contest. To succeed, a student had to create a sketch on an assigned topic while isolated in a closed booth with no reference material to draw on. The prize, organised by the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture (Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture), was open to their students. From 1666, the award winner could win a stay of three to five years at the Palazzo Mancini in Rome at the expense of the King of France. In 1720, the Académie Royale d’Architecture began a prize in architecture. Six painters, four sculptors, and two architects would be sent to the French Academy in Rome founded by Jean-Baptiste Colbert from 1666.

Expanded after 140 years into five categories, the contest started in 1663 as two categories: painting and sculpture. Architecture was added in 1720. In 1803, music was added, and after 1804 there was a prix for engraving as well. The primary winner took the "First Grand Prize" (called the agréé), and the "Second Prizes" were awarded to the runners-up.

In 1803, Napoleon Bonaparte moved the French Academy in Rome to the Villa Medici, with the intention of preserving an institution once threatened by the French Revolution. At first, the villa and its gardens were in a sad state, and they had to be renovated in order to house the winners of the Prix de Rome. In this way, he hoped to retain for young French artists the opportunity to see and copy the masterpieces of antiquity and the Renaissance.

Jacques-Louis David, having failed to win the prize three years in a row, considered suicide. Édouard Manet, Edgar Degas, Ernest Chausson, and Maurice Ravel attempted the Prix de Rome but did not gain recognition. Ravel tried a total of five times to win the prize, and the last failed attempt in 1905 was so controversial that it led to a complete reorganization of the administration at the Paris Conservatory.

During World War II (1939–45), the prize winners were accommodated in the Villa Paradiso in Nice. The Prix de Rome was abolished in 1968 by André Malraux, who was Minister of Culture at the time. Since then, a number of contests have been created, and the academies, together with the Institut de France, were merged by the State and the Minister of Culture. Selected residents now have an opportunity for study during an 18-month (sometimes 2-year) stay at The Academy of France in Rome, which is accommodated in the Villa Medici.

The heyday of the Prix de Rome was during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. It was later imitated by the Prix Abd-el-Tif and the Villa Abd-el-Tif in Algiers, 1907–1961, and later Prix d'Indochine including a bursary to visit the École des Beaux-Arts de l'Indochine in Hanoi, 1920–1939, and bursary for residence at the Casa de Velázquez in Madrid, 1929–present.

Winners in the Architecture category

The Prix de Rome for Architecture was created in 1720.

18th century (architecture)

19th century (architecture)

20th century (architecture)

First Prize Winners in the Painting category

17th century (painting)

18th century (painting)

19th century (painting)

20th century (painting)

  • 1901 – Laurent Jacquot-Defrance [fr]
  • 1902 – Paul Sieffert [fr] and Victor-Oscar Guétin
  • 1903 – André-Jean Monchablon and Yves Edgar Muller d'Escars
  • 1904 – No award
  • 1905 – No award
  • 1906 – Georges Paul Leroux [fr] and François-Maurice Roganeau [fr]
  • 1907 – Louis Léon Eugène Billotey [fr] and Émile Aubry
  • 1908 – Jean Lefeuvre [fr]
  • 1909 – Pierre Bodard
  • 1910 – Jean Dupas
  • 1911 – Marco de Gastyne
  • 1912 – Gabriel Girodon [fr]
  • 1913 – No award
  • 1914 – Jean-Blaise Giraud, Jean Despujols and Robert Poughéon
  • 1915–18 – No award
  • 1919 – André Louis Pierre Rigal [fr]
  • 1920 – No award
  • 1921 – Emile-Marie Beaume and Constantin Font [fr]
  • 1922 – Pierre-Henri Ducos de La Haille [fr]
  • 1923 – Pierre Dionisi [fr]
  • 1924 – René-Marie Castaing [fr]
  • 1925 – Odette Pauvert (the first woman to receive the "First Grand Prize" in painting)
  • 1926 – No award
  • 1927 – No award
  • 1928 – Paul-Robert Bazé, Daniel-Jules-Marie Octobre and Nicolas Untersteller
  • 1929 – Alfred Giess [fr]
  • 1930 – Yves Brayer
  • 1931 – André Tondu [fr]
  • 1932 – Georges Cheyssial
  • 1933 – Roland-Marie Gérardin
  • 1934 – Pierre Emile Henri Jérôme [fr]
  • 1935 – No award
  • 1936 – Lucien Fontanarosa and Jean Pinet
  • 1937 – Pierre Robert Lucas
  • 1938 – Madeleine Lavanture
  • 1939 – Reynold Arnould [fr]
  • 1940–42 – No award
  • 1943 – Pierre-Yves Trémois and Yves Trévédy
  • 1944 – Georges Marcel Jean Pichon
  • 1945 – Pierre-Marie-Joseph Guyenot
  • 1946 – José Fabri-Canti [fr]
  • 1947 – Eliane Beaupuy
  • 1948 – François Orlandini
  • 1949 – No award
  • 1950 – Françoise Boudet [fr] and Robert Savary [fr]
  • 1951 – Daniel Sénélar
  • 1952 – Paul Guiramand [fr]
  • 1953 – André Brasilier [fr]
  • 1954 – Armand Sinko
  • 1955 – Paul Ambille [fr]
  • 1956 – Henri Thomas
  • 1957 – Arnaud d'Hauterives [fr]
  • 1958 – Raymond Humbert
  • 1959 – Arlette Budy
  • 1960 – Pierre Carron
  • 1961 – Joël Moulin
  • 1962 – Freddy Tiffou [fr]
  • 1963 – Roger Blaquière
  • 1964 – Claude-Jean Guillemot
  • 1965 – Jean-Marc Lange [fr]
  • 1966 – Gérard Barthélemy
  • 1967 – Thierry Vaubourgoin [fr]
  • 1968 – Joël Froment [fr] (last award)

First Prize Winners in the Sculpture category

17th century (sculpture)

18th century (sculpture)

19th century (sculpture)

20th century (sculpture)

  • 1901 – Henri Bouchard
  • 1902 – Alphonse Camille Terroir
  • 1903 – Eugène Désiré Piron
  • 1904 – Jean-Baptiste Larrivé
  • 1905 – Lucien Brasseur
  • 1906 – François-Maurice Roganeau
  • 1907 – Not awarded
  • 1908 – Marcel Gaumont and Henri Camille Crenier
  • 1909 – Felix Benneteau-Desgrois
  • 1910 – Louis Lejeune
  • 1911 – Lucienne Heuvelmans (the first woman to receive the "First Grand Prize")
  • 1912 – Siméon Charles Joseph Foucault
  • 1913 – Armand Martial
  • 1914 – Marc Leriche
  • 1917 _ Stefano Zuech
  • 1919 – Alfred Janniot and Raymond Delamarre jointly
  • 1920 – Charles Georges Cassou
  • 1921 – Élie-Jean Vézien
  • 1922 – Jean Dominique Aubiné
  • 1923 – Louis Bertola
  • 1924 – André Augustin Sallé
  • 1925 – Victor Jules Évariste Jonchère
  • 1926 – René Letourneur
  • 1927 – Raymond Couvègnes
  • 1928 – Pierre Honoré
  • 1929 – Félix Joffre
  • 1930 – André Bizette-Lindet
  • 1931 – Louis Leygue
  • 1932 – Henri Lagriffoul
  • 1933 – Ulysse Gémignani
  • 1934 – Albert Bouquillon
  • 1935 – Claude Bouscau
  • 1936 – André Greck
  • 1937 – Raymond Granville Barger?
  • 1937 – Maurice de Bus
  • 1938 – Adolphe Charlet
  • 1939 – René Leleu
  • 1942 – Maurice Gambier d'Hurigny
  • 1943 – Lucien Fenaux
  • 1944 – Francis Pellerin
  • 1945 – Pierre Thézé
  • 1946 – Gaston Watkin
  • 1947 – Léon Bosramiez
  • 1948 – Jacques Gotard
  • 1949 – Jean Lorquin
  • 1950 – Maurice Calka
  • 1951 – Albert Féraud
  • 1952 – Henri Derycke
  • 1953 – Alain Métayer
  • 1954 – Jacqueline Bechet-Ferber
  • 1955 – Kenneth Ford
  • 1956 – Claude Goutin
  • 1957 – Cyrille Bartolini
  • 1958 – Bruno Lebel
  • 1959 – Georges Jeanclos
  • 1960 – No award
  • 1961 – Glynn Williams
  • 1961 – Georges Maurice Dyens and André Barelier jointly
  • 1962 – No award
  • 1963 – Philippe Thill and Jacqueline Deyme jointly
  • 1964 – Louis Lutz
  • 1965 – No award
  • 1966 – Joséphine Chevry
  • 1967 – Michel Fargeot and Anne Houllevigue jointly
  • 1968 – Maryse Voisin (last award)

First Prize Winners in the Engraving category

The engraving prize was created in 1804.

19th century (engraving)

  • 1804 – Claude-Louis Masquelier (first award)
  • 1805 – Nicolas-Pierre Tiolier
  • 1806 – Théodore Richomme
  • 1807 – Jacques-Édouard Gatteaux
  • 1810 – Durand
  • 1811 – Armand Corot
  • 1812 – Benjamin-Eugène Bourgeois
  • 1813 – Henri-François Brandt
  • 1814 – François Forster
  • 1815 –
  • 1816 – Jacques Joseph Coiny
  • 1817 – Joseph-Sylvestre Brun
  • 1818 – André-Benoit Taurel
  • 1819 – Ursin-Jules Vatinelle
  • 1820 – Constantin-Louis-Antoine Lorichon
  • 1823 –
  • 1824 – Antoine-François Gelée
  • 1826 – Pierre François Eugène Giraud
  • 1827 – No award
  • 1828 – Joseph-Victor Vibert
  • 1830 – Achille-Louis Martinet
  • 1831 – Eugène-André Oudiné
  • 1832 –
  • 1834 – François Augustin Bridoux and Louis Adolphe Salmon
  • 1835 – Jean-Baptiste Eugène Farochon
  • 1836 – First prize not awarded
  • 1838 – Charles-Victor Normand and Victor Florence Pollet, jointly
  • 1839 – André Vauthier
  • 1840 – Jean-Marie Saint-Eve
  • 1842 – Louis-Désiré-Joseph Delemer
  • 1843 – Louis Merley
  • 1844 – Jean-Ernest Aubert
  • 1846 – Joseph-Gabriel Tourny
  • 1848 – Jacques-Martial Devaux; Louis-Félix Chabaud (postponed from 1847)
  • 1850 – Gustave-Nicolas Bertinot
  • 1852 – Charles-Alphonse-Paul Bellay
  • 1854 – Joseph-Paul-Marius Soumy
  • 1855 – Alphée Dubois
  • 1856 – Claude-Ferdinand Gaillard
  • 1860 – Jean Lagrange
  • 1861 – Jules-Clément Chaplain
  • 1866 – Charles-Jean-Marie Degeorge
  • 1868 – Charles-Albert Waltner
  • 1869 – Arthur Soldi
  • 1870 – Achille Jacquet
  • 1872 – Daniel Dupuis
  • 1875 – Oscar Roty
  • 1878 – Louis-Alexandre Bottée; Charles Théodore Deblois
  • 1881 – Henri-Auguste-Jules Patey
  • 1883 – William Barbotin
  • 1886 – Jean Patricot
  • 1887 – Frédéric-Charles-Victor de Vernon
  • 1888 – Henri Le Riche
  • 1890 – Charles Pillet
  • 1892 – Hippolyte Lefebvre
  • 1894 – Jean Antonin Delzers
  • 1896 – Arthur Mayeur
  • 1898 – Jean Coraboeuf
  • 1899 – René Grégoire
  • 1900 – Jean Antonin Delzers

20th century (engraving)

  • 1902 – Lucien Pénat; Pierre-Victor Dautel
  • 1903 – Eugène Piron
  • 1904 – Louis Busiére
  • 1905 – Julien-Louis Mérot
  • 1906 – Henri-Lucien Cheffer; Raoul Serres
  • 1908 –
  • 1909 – Victor Hammer
  • 1910 – Jules Piel
  • 1912 –
  • 1914 – André Lavrillier
  • 1919 – Albert Decaris; Gaston Lavrillier
  • 1920 – Pierre Matossy
  • 1921 – Pierre Gandon
  • 1922 – Raymond-Jacques Brechenmacher
  • 1923 – Lucien Bazor
  • 1927 – Frederick George Austin
  • 1928 – Robert Cami ; Charles-Émile Pinson
  • 1929 – Aleth Guzman-Nageotte
  • 1930 – Jules Henri Lengrand
  • 1931 – Arthur Henderson Hall
  • 1932 – Louis Muller
  • 1934 – Paul Lemagny
  • 1935 – Albert de Jaeger
  • 1936 –
  • 1942 – Raymond Joly
  • 1945 – Raymond Tschudin
  • 1946 – Paul Guimezanes
  • 1948 – Jean Delpech
  • 1950 – Georges Arnulf
  • 1952 – Claude Durrens
  • 1957 – Émile Rousseau
  • 1960 – Jean Asselbergs ; Pierre Béquet
  • 1964 – Brigitte Courmes (the only woman to receive the "First Grand Prize" in engraving)
  • 1966 – Jean-Pierre Velly
  • 1968 – Michel Henri Viot (last award)

First Prize Winners in the Musical Composition category

The required composition was originally a cantata for solo voice and orchestra; later one male and female voice were specified; and later still three voices. Titles of the pieces have generally been restricted to "cantata", "lyric scene" or "dramatic scene".

19th century (musical composition)

20th century (musical composition)

Prix de Rome (Netherlands)

A Prix de Rome was also established in the Kingdom of Holland by Lodewijk Napoleon to award young artists and architects. During the years 1807–1810 prize winners were sent to Paris and onwards to Rome for study. In 1817, after the Netherlands had gained its independence, King Willem I restarted the prize; though it took until 1823 before the new "Royal Academies" of Amsterdam and Antwerp could organize the juries. Suspended in 1851 it was reinstated in 1870 by William III of the Netherlands. Since then the winners have been selected by the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam under the main headings of architecture and the visual arts.

Prix de Rome (Belgium)

The Belgian Prix de Rome (Dutch: Prijs van Rome) is an award for young artists, created in 1832, following the example of the original French Prix de Rome. The Royal Academy of Fine Arts Antwerp organised the prize until 1920, when the national government took over. The first prize is also sometimes called the Grand Prix de Rome. There were distinct categories for architecture, painting, sculpture and music.

See also

External links

Uses material from the Wikipedia article Prix de Rome, released under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license.