San Bernardino County, California
San Bernardino County, officially the County of San Bernardino, is a county located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of California, and is located within the Inland Empire area. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, the population was 2,035,210, making it the fifth-most populous county in California and the 14th-most populous in the United States. The county seat is San Bernardino.
While included within the Greater Los Angeles area, San Bernardino County is included in the Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario metropolitan statistical area, as well as the Los Angeles–Long Beach combined statistical area.
With an area of 20,105 square miles (52,070 km2), San Bernardino County is the largest county in the contiguous United States by area, although some of Alaska's boroughs and census areas are larger. The county is close to the size of West Virginia.
This vast county stretches from where the bulk of the county population resides in three Census County Divisions (Fontana, San Bernardino, & Victorville-Hesperia), counting 1,793,186 people as of the 2010 Census, covering the 1,730 square miles (4,480 km2), across the thinly populated deserts and mountains. It spans an area from south of the San Bernardino Mountains in San Bernardino Valley, to the Nevada border and the Colorado River.
Spanish Missionaries from Mission San Gabriel Arcángel established a church at the village of Politania in 1810. Father Francisco Dumetz named the church San Bernardino on May 20, 1810, after the feast day of St. Bernardino of Siena. The Franciscans also gave the name San Bernardino to the snowcapped peak in Southern California, in honor of the saint and it is from him that the county derives its name. In 1819, they established the San Bernardino de Sena Estancia, a mission farm in what is now Redlands.
Following Mexican independence from Spain in 1821, Mexican citizens were granted land grants to establish ranchos in the area of the county. Rancho Jurupa in 1838, Rancho Cucamonga and El Rincon in 1839, Rancho Santa Ana del Chino in 1841, Rancho San Bernardino in 1842 and Rancho Muscupiabe in 1844.
Following the purchase of Rancho San Bernardino, and the establishment of the town of San Bernardino in 1851 by Mormon colonists, San Bernardino County was formed in 1853 from parts of Los Angeles County. Some of the southern parts of the county's territory were given to Riverside County in 1893.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 20,105 square miles (52,070 km2), of which 20,057 square miles (51,950 km2) is land and 48 square miles (120 km2) (0.2%) is water. It is the largest county by area in California and the largest in the United States (excluding boroughs in Alaska). It is slightly larger than the states of New Jersey, Connecticut, Delaware and Rhode Island combined, and is also slightly larger than Switzerland in square miles. It borders both Nevada and Arizona.
The bulk of the population, nearly two million, live in the roughly 480 square miles south of the San Bernardino Mountains adjacent to Riverside and in the San Bernardino Valley in the southwestern portion of the county. About 390,000 residents live just north of the San Bernardino Mountains, in and around the roughly 280 square-mile area that includes the Victor Valley. Roughly another 100,000 people live scattered across the rest of the sprawling county.
The Mojave National Preserve covers some of the eastern desert, especially between Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. The desert portion also includes the cities of Needles next to the Colorado River and Barstow at the junction of Interstate 15 and Interstate 40. Trona is at the northwestern part of the county, west of Death Valley. This national park, mostly within Inyo County, also has a small portion of land within San Bernardino County. The largest metropolitan area in the Mojave Desert part of the county is the Victor Valley, with the incorporated localities of Adelanto, Apple Valley, Hesperia, and Victorville. Further south, a portion of Joshua Tree National Park overlaps the county near the High Desert area, in the vicinity of Twentynine Palms. The remaining towns make up the remainder of the High Desert: Pioneertown, Yucca Valley, Joshua Tree, Landers, and Morongo Valley.
The San Bernardino Valley is at the eastern end of the San Gabriel Valley. The San Bernardino Valley includes the cities of Ontario, Chino, Chino Hills, Upland, Fontana, Rialto, Colton, Grand Terrace, Montclair, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino, Loma Linda, Highland, Redlands, and Yucaipa.
National protected areas
- Angeles National Forest (part)
- Death Valley National Park (part)
- Havasu National Wildlife Refuge (part)
- Joshua Tree National Park (part)
- Mojave National Preserve
- San Bernardino National Forest (part)
- Sand to Snow National Monument (part)
More than 80% of the county's land is owned by the federal government. There are at least 35 official wilderness areas in the county that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. This is the largest number of any county in the United States (although not the largest in total area). The majority are managed by the Bureau of Land Management, but some are integral components of the above listed national protected areas. Most of these wilderness areas lie entirely within the county, but a few are shared with neighboring counties (and two of these are shared with the neighboring states of Arizona and Nevada).
Except as noted, these wilderness areas are managed solely by the Bureau of Land Management and lie within San Bernardino County:
- Bigelow Cholla Garden Wilderness
- Bighorn Mountain Wilderness (part)
- Black Mountain Wilderness
- Bristol Mountains Wilderness
- Cadiz Dunes Wilderness
- Chemehuevi Mountains Wilderness
- Cleghorn Lakes Wilderness
- Clipper Mountain Wilderness
- Cucamonga Wilderness
- Dead Mountains Wilderness
- Death Valley Wilderness (part)
- Golden Valley Wilderness
- Grass Valley Wilderness
- Havasu Wilderness (part)
- Hollow Hills Wilderness
- Joshua Tree Wilderness (part)
- Kelso Dunes Wilderness
- Kingston Range Wilderness
- Mesquite Wilderness
- Mojave Wilderness
- Newberry Mountains Wilderness
- North Mesquite Mountains Wilderness
- Old Woman Mountains Wilderness
- Pahrump Valley Wilderness (part)
- Piute Mountains Wilderness
- Rodman Mountains Wilderness
- Saddle Peak Hills Wilderness (part)
- San Gorgonio Wilderness (part)
- Sheep Mountain Wilderness (part)
- Sheephole Valley Wilderness
- Stateline Wilderness
- Stepladder Mountains Wilderness
- Trilobite Wilderness
- Turtle Mountains Wilderness
- Whipple Mountains Wilderness
Places by population, race, and income
|U.S. Decennial Census|
The 2010 United States Census reported that San Bernardino County had a population of 2,035,210. The racial makeup of San Bernardino County was 1,153,161 (56.7%) White, 181,862 (8.9%) African American, 22,689 (1.1%) Native American, 128,603 (6.3%) Asian, 6,870 (0.3%) Pacific Islander, 439,661 (21.6%) from other races, and 102,364 (5.0%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,001,145 persons (49.2%).
As of the census of 2000, there were 1,709,434 people, 528,594 households, and 404,374 families residing in the county. The population density was 85 people per square mile (33/km2). There were 601,369 housing units at an average density of 30 per square mile (12/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 58.9% White, 9.1% African American, 1.2% Native American, 4.7% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 20.8% from other races, and 5.0% from two or more races. 39.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 8.3% were of German, 5.5% English and 5.1% Irish ancestry. 66.1% spoke English, 27.7% Spanish and 1.1% Tagalog as their first language.
There were 528,594 households, out of which 43.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.8% were married couples living together, 14.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 23.5% were non-families. 18.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 6.6% had someone 65 years of age or older living alone. The average household size was 3.2 people, and the average family size was 3.6 people.
The number of homeless in San Bernardino County grew from 5,270 in 2002 to 7,331 in 2007, a 39% increase.
In the county, the population was spread out—with 32.3% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, and 8.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.2 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $42,066, and the median income for a family was $46,574. Males had a median income of $37,025 versus $27,993 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,856. About 12.6% of families and 15.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.6% of those under age 18 and 8.4% of those age 65 or over.
Government and policing
The San Bernardino County Board of Supervisors has 5 members elected from their districts:
- Paul Cook (First District),
- Janice Rutherford (Second District),
- Dawn Rowe (Third District),
- Chairman Curt Hagman (Fourth District), and
- Vice Chair Josie Gonzales (Fifth District).
Other County of San Bernardino Elected Officials
- Ensen Mason (Auditor-Controller/Treasurer/Tax Collector)
- Bob Dutton (Assessor/Recorder)
- Theodore Alejandre (County Superintendent of Schools)
- Jason Anderson (District Attorney)
- John McMahon (Sheriff/Coroner/Public Administrator)
State and federal representation
In the United States House of Representatives, San Bernardino County is split between 5 congressional districts:
- California's 8th congressional district, represented by Republican Jay Obernolte,
- California's 27th congressional district, represented by Democrat Judy Chu,
- California's 31st congressional district, represented by Democrat Pete Aguilar,
- California's 35th congressional district, represented by Democrat Norma Torres, and
- California's 39th congressional district, represented by Republican Young Kim.
In the California State Assembly, San Bernardino County is split between 8 assembly districts:
- the 33rd Assembly District, represented by Republican Thurston Smith,
- the 36th Assembly District, represented by Republican Tom Lackey,
- the 40th Assembly District, represented by Democrat James Ramos,
- the 41st Assembly District, represented by Democrat Chris Holden,
- the 42nd Assembly District, represented by Independent Chad Mayes,
- the 47th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Eloise Reyes,
- the 52nd Assembly District, represented by Democrat Freddie Rodriguez, and
- the 55th Assembly District, represented by Republican Phillip Chen.
In the California State Senate, San Bernardino County is split between 6 districts:
- the 16th Senate District, represented by Republican Shannon Grove,
- the 20th Senate District, represented by Democrat Connie Leyva,
- the 21st Senate District, represented by Republican Scott Wilk,
- the 23rd Senate District, represented by Republican Rosilicie Ochoa Bogh,
- the 25th Senate District, represented by Democrat Anthony Portantino, and
- the 29th Senate District, represented by Democrat Josh Newman.
The San Bernardino County Sheriff provides court protection, jail administration, and coroner services for all of San Bernardino County. It provides police patrol, detective, and marshal services for the unincorporated areas of the county.
Municipal police departments in the county are: Fontana, San Bernardino, Rialto, Ontario, Upland, Montclair, Chino, Redlands, Colton, and Barstow. The San Bernardino County Sheriff provides contract law enforcement services to 14 incorporated cities and towns: Adelanto, Apple Valley, Big Bear, Chino Hills, Grand Terrace, Hesperia, Highland, Loma Linda, Needles, Rancho Cucamonga, Twentynine Palms, Victorville, Yucaipa, and Yucca Valley. Also for the San Manuel Band of Mission Indians. The Sheriff's Commanders assigned to these stations acts as each municipality's Chief of Police.
Cities by population and voter registration
|2020||43.5% 366,257||54.2% 455,859||2.2% 19,014|
|2016||41.5% 271,240||52.1% 340,833||6.4% 41,910|
|2012||45.0% 262,358||52.3% 305,109||2.7% 15,463|
|2008||45.8% 277,408||52.1% 315,720||2.2% 13,206|
|2004||55.3% 289,306||43.5% 227,789||1.2% 6,181|
|2000||48.8% 221,757||47.2% 214,749||4.0% 18,387|
|1996||43.6% 180,135||44.4% 183,372||12.1% 49,848|
|1992||37.2% 176,563||38.7% 183,634||24.0% 113,873|
|1988||60.0% 235,167||38.6% 151,118||1.5% 5,723|
|1984||64.8% 222,071||34.0% 116,454||1.2% 4,180|
|1980||59.7% 172,957||31.7% 91,790||8.7% 25,065|
|1976||49.5% 113,265||47.9% 109,636||2.6% 5,984|
|1972||59.7% 144,689||35.5% 85,986||4.8% 11,581|
|1968||50.1% 111,974||40.0% 89,418||9.9% 22,224|
|1964||42.8% 92,145||57.1% 123,012||0.1% 243|
|1960||52.0% 99,481||47.5% 90,888||0.5% 944|
|1956||56.9% 86,263||42.8% 64,946||0.3% 443|
|1952||57.3% 77,718||41.8% 56,663||0.9% 1,153|
|1948||48.6% 46,570||47.7% 45,691||3.7% 3,577|
|1944||46.5% 34,084||52.6% 38,530||0.9% 646|
|1940||44.3% 30,511||54.5% 37,520||1.2% 847|
|1936||39.0% 22,219||59.6% 33,955||1.5% 842|
|1932||44.6% 22,094||50.2% 24,889||5.2% 2,565|
|1928||74.7% 29,229||24.1% 9,436||1.1% 447|
|1924||56.9% 15,974||9.4% 2,634||33.7% 9,453|
|1920||62.8% 12,518||28.2% 5,620||9.0% 1,783|
|1916||50.7% 11,932||39.9% 9,398||9.4% 2,215|
|1912||1.1% 172||38.0% 5,835||60.9% 9,336|
|1908||52.9% 4,729||30.0% 2,685||17.0% 1,526|
|1904||58.2% 3,884||23.6% 1,573||18.1% 1,213|
|1900||52.2% 3,135||39.1% 2,347||8.8% 529|
|1896||48.5% 2,818||47.2% 2,740||4.3% 247|
|1892||48.7% 3,686||33.7% 2,546||17.6% 1,335|
|1888||53.5% 3,059||41.7% 2,388||4.7% 271|
|1884||54.3% 1,617||43.3% 1,288||2.3% 69|
|1880||49.0% 730||47.8% 711||3.0% 46|
San Bernardino County is a county in which candidates from both major political parties have won in recent elections. Democrat Hillary Clinton carried the county by a majority and by double digits in 2016. The Democratic Party also carried the county in 2008 and 2012, when Barack Obama won majorities of the county's votes, and in 1992 and 1996, when Bill Clinton won pluralities. Republican George W. Bush took the county in 2000 by a plurality and in 2004 by a majority. The county is split between heavily Latino, middle-class, and Democratic areas and more wealthy conservative areas. The heavily Latino cities of Ontario and San Bernardino went for John Kerry in 2004, but with a relatively low voter turnout. In 2006, San Bernardino's population exceeded 201,000, and in 2004, only 42,520 votes were cast in the city; in 2006, strongly Republican Rancho Cucamonga had over 145,000 residents, of whom 53,054 voted.
According to the California Secretary of State, as of February 2020, there were 1,016,190 registered voters in San Bernardino County. Of those, 410,197 (40.37%) were registered Democrats, 298,234 (29.35%) were registered Republicans, with the remainder belonging to minor political parties or declining to state.
On November 4, 2008, San Bernardino County voted 67% for Proposition 8, which amended the California Constitution to ban same-sex marriages.
The current district attorney is Jason Anderson, who was elected in March 2018 and took office on January 1, 2019.
The county's primary law enforcement agency is the San Bernardino County Sheriff's Department. The department provides law enforcement services in the unincorporated areas of the county and in 14 contract cities, operates the county jail system, provides marshal services in the county superior courts, and has numerous other divisions to serve the residents of the county.
The county operates the San Bernardino County Consolidated Fire District (commonly known as the San Bernardino County Fire Department). The department provides "all-risk" fire, rescue, and emergency medical services to all unincorporated areas in the county except for several areas served by independent fire protection districts, and several cities that chose to contract with the department.
The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense.
Cities by population and crime rates
Colleges and universities
- Barstow Community College
- Brandman University (Ontario campus)
- California State University, San Bernardino
- Chaffey College
- Copper Mountain College
- Crafton Hills College
- Loma Linda University
- National University (campuses in Ontario and San Bernardino)
- Palo Verde Community College (Needles campus)
- San Bernardino Valley College
- University of Redlands
- Victor Valley College
The San Bernardino County Library System consists of 33 branches across the county. The library system also has inter-library loan partnerships with libraries in College of the Desert, Moreno Valley, Murrieta, and Victorville. Library services offered vary from branch to branch, but include internet access, children's story times, adult literacy services, book clubs, classes, and special events. The library system also offers e-books, digital music and movie downloads, free access to online learning through Lynda.com, and many other digital services.
City-sponsored public libraries also exist in San Bernardino County, including A. K. Smiley Public Library in Redlands, California, which was built in 1898. Other public libraries in the County include: The San Bernardino City Public Library System, Rancho Cucamonga Public Library, Upland Public Library, Colton City Library, and the Ontario City Library. These libraries are separate from the county system and do not share circulation privileges.
- Morongo Basin Transit Authority provides bus service in Yucca Valley, Joshua Tree and Twentynine Palms (including the Marine base). Limited service is also provided to Palm Springs.
- Mountain Area Regional Transit Authority (MARTA) covers the Lake Arrowhead and Big Bear regions. Limited service is also provided to Downtown San Bernardino.
- Needles Area Transit serves Needles and the surrounding county area.
- Omnitrans provides transit service in the urbanized portion of San Bernardino County, serving the City of San Bernardino, as well as the area between Montclair and Yucaipa.
- Victor Valley Transit Authority operates buses in Victorville, Hesperia, Adelanto, Apple Valley and the surrounding county area.
- Foothill Transit connects the Inland Empire area to the San Gabriel Valley and downtown Los Angeles.
- RTA connects Montclair, and Anaheim to Riverside County.
- San Bernardino County is also served by Greyhound buses and Amtrak trains. Metrolink commuter trains connect the urbanized portion of the county with Los Angeles, Orange, and Riverside Counties.
- Commercial passenger flights are available at Ontario International Airport.
- San Bernardino International Airport is being remodeled and is expected to serve the region as an international airport. The airport will have access through I-215 and I-10 via Mill Street. Terminal construction recently finished[when?], and commercial flights are planned, awaiting carriers to select SBD as a destination airport.
- Southern California Logistics Airport (Victorville) is a major airplane graveyard, general aviation airport, and a Partial Air Force Installation.
- The County of San Bernardino owns six general aviation airports: Apple Valley Airport, Baker Airport, Barstow-Daggett Airport, Chino Airport, Needles Airport, and Twentynine Palms Airport.
- Other general aviation airports in the county include: Big Bear City Airport, Cable Airport (Upland), Hesperia Airport (not listed in NPIAS), and Redlands Municipal Airport
California Attorney General Jerry Brown sued the county in April 2007 under the state's environmental quality act for failing to account for the impact of global warming in the county's 25-year growth plan, approved in March. The Center for Biological Diversity, the Sierra Club and the Audubon Society also sued in a separate case. According to Brendan Cummings, a senior attorney for the plaintiffs: "San Bernardino has never seen a project it didn't like. They rubber-stamp development. It's very much of a frontier mentality." The plaintiffs want the county to rewrite its growth plan's environmental impact statement to include methods to measure greenhouse gases and take steps to reduce them.
According to county spokesman David Wert, only 15% of the county is controlled by the county[clarification needed]; the rest is cities and federal and state land. However, the county says it will make sure employment centers and housing are near transportation corridors to reduce traffic and do more to promote compact development and mass transit. The county budgeted $325,000 to fight the lawsuit.
The state and the county reached a settlement in August 2007. The county agreed to amend its general plan to include a Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Plan, including an emission inventory and reduction targets.
- Big Bear City
- Big River
- Fort Irwin
- Homestead Valley
- Joshua Tree
- Lake Arrowhead
- Lucerne Valley
- Lytle Creek
- Morongo Valley
- Mountain View Acres
- Oak Glen
- Oak Hills
- Pinon Hills
- Running Springs
- San Antonio Heights
- Searles Valley
- Silver Lakes
- Spring Valley Lake
- Angelus Oaks
- Arrowbear Lake
- Arrowhead Farms
- Arrowhead Highlands
- Arrowhead Junction
- Baldwin Lake
- Baldy Mesa
- Bell Mountain
- Blue Jay
- Cajon Junction
- Cedar Glen
- Cedarpines Park
- Crest Park
- El Mirage
- Forest Falls
- Green Valley Lake
- Halloran Springs
- Havasu Lake
- Johnson Valley
- Kramer Hills
- Kramer Junction
- La Delta
- Mojave Heights
- Mount Baldy
- Mountain Home Village
- Mountain Pass
- Newberry Springs
- Oro Grande
- Parker Dam
- Pioneer Point
- Red Mountain
- Sunfair Heights
- Twentynine Palms Base
- Twin Peaks
- Vidal Junction
- Wonder Valley
- Chemehuevi Indian Reservation
- Colorado River Indian Reservation (partially in Riverside County, and La Paz County, Arizona)
- Fort Mojave Indian Reservation (partially in Mohave County, Arizona, and Clark County, Nevada)
- San Manuel Indian Reservation
- Twenty-Nine Palms Indian Reservation (partially in Riverside County)
The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of San Bernardino County.
† county seat
Places of interest
- Auto Club Speedway in Fontana, California
- The Mojave National Preserve
- Calico Ghost Town — northeast of Barstow via Interstate 15
- Zzyzx — a small desert settlement that used to be a health spa and is now the Desert Studies Center
- Downtown San Bernardino
- Joshua Tree National Park
- San Bernardino National Forest — home to Big Bear Lake outdoor activities
- Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex
- Snow Summit, Bear Mountain (Ski Area), and Snow Valley Mountain Resort are home to Southern California's premier winter ski resorts. Mountain High, although technically located in Los Angeles County, is also an alternative to Snow Summit and Bear Mountain because of its proximity to San Bernardino County.
- The Pacific Crest Trail, officially designated as the Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail (PCT), passes through San Bernardino County.
- List of California counties
- List of cemeteries in San Bernardino County
- List of museums in the Inland Empire (California)
- List of school districts in San Bernardino County, California
- National Register of Historic Places listings in San Bernardino County, California