Shipyard

Monaco Marine

A shipyard (also called a dockyard) is a place where ships are built and repaired. These can be yachts, military vessels, cruise liners or other cargo or passenger ships. Dockyards are sometimes more associated with maintenance and basing activities than shipyards, which are sometimes associated more with initial construction. The terms are routinely used interchangeably, in part because the evolution of dockyards and shipyards has often caused them to change or merge roles.

Countries with large shipbuilding industries include Australia, Brazil, China, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Taiwan, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, the USA and Vietnam. The shipbuilding industry is more fragmented in Europe than in Asia where countries tend to have fewer, larger companies. Many naval vessels are built or maintained in shipyards owned or operated by the national government or navy.

Shipyards are constructed near the sea or tidal rivers to allow easy access for their ships. The United Kingdom, for example, has shipyards on many of its rivers.

The site of a large shipyard will contain many specialised cranes, dry docks, slipways, dust-free warehouses, painting facilities and extremely large areas for fabrication of the ships. After a ship's useful life is over, it makes its final voyage to a shipbreaking yard, often on a beach in South Asia. Historically shipbreaking was carried on in drydock in developed countries, but high wages and environmental regulations have resulted in movement of the industry to developing regions.

History

The world's earliest known dockyards were built in the Harappan port city of Lothal circa 2600 BC in Gujarat, India. Lothal's dockyards connected to an ancient course of the Sabarmati river on the trade route between Harappan cities in Sindh and the peninsula of Saurashtra when the surrounding Kutch desert was a part of the Arabian Sea.

Lothal engineers accorded high priority to the creation of a dockyard and a warehouse to serve the purposes of naval trade. The dock was built on the eastern flank of the town, and is regarded by archaeologists as an engineering feat of the highest order. It was located away from the main current of the river to avoid silting, but provided access to ships in high tide as well.

The name of the ancient Greek city of Naupactus means "shipyard" (combination of the Greek words ναύς naus ship, boat and πήγνυμι pêgnumi, pegnymi builder, fixer). Naupactus' reputation in this field extends to the time of legend, where it is depicted as the place where the Heraclidae built a fleet to invade the Peloponnesus.

In the Spanish city of Barcelona, the Drassanes shipyards were active from at least the mid-13th century until the 18th century, although it at times served as a barracks for troops as well as an arsenal. During its time of operation it was continuously changed, rebuilt and modified, but two original towers and part of the original eight construction naves remain today. It is currently a maritime museum.

Ships were the first items to be manufactured in a factory, several hundred years before the Industrial Revolution, in the Venice Arsenal, Venice, Italy. The Arsenal apparently mass-produced nearly one ship every day using pre-manufactured parts, and assembly lines and, at its height, employed 16,000 people.

Historic shipyards

Prominent dockyards and shipyards

Africa

North America

Aerial view of Norfolk Naval Shipyard

South America

Brasfels Shipyard – Rio de Janeiro
  • The DIANCA shipyard in Puerto Cabello, Venezuela.
  • SCRA (Construction Refurbishment and Armament Service) with two dry docks, ready for naval and general vessel works.
    • Punta de Lobos (Wolves Point) in west Montevideo, established in 1874.
    • Punta Maua (Maua Point) in east Montevideo, established in 1872.
  • Tsakos Industrias Navales S.A.
  • Cotecmar shipyard in Cartagena, Colombia. Cotecmar
  • Enseada Industria Naval S.A., Bahia and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • The SIMA shipyard in Callao, Peru.
  • Asenabra, in Duran, Ecuador. Established in 1990, more than 25 years of experience in naval repairs. 72.000m2 operating today, dry dock facilities will be available in 2016.
  • ASMAR shipyards in Valparaiso, Talcahuano and Punta Arenas, Chile. ASMAR

Europe

Girvan shipyard Alexander Noble and son, Ayrshire Scotland
LaNaval shipyard in Bilbao, Spain
  • Hamburg Shipyards
  • Emden Shipyard
  • The Meyer Werft GmbH is one of the major German shipyards, headquartered in Papenburg at the river Ems. Founded in 1795 and starting with small wooden vessels, today Meyer Werft is one of world's leading builders of luxury passenger ships. Altogether about 700 ships of different types have been built at the yard.
  • Navantia: major public Spanish shipbuilding firm, which offers its services to both military and civil sector in three industrial areas: Cartagena / Cádiz / Ferrol (headquarters: Madrid) and with recent important projects as F100 class frigate program and S80 class submarine program
  • Construcciones Navales del Norte LaNaval, Sestao (Bilbao)
  • Cernaval
  • Lisnave: repair facilities in Setúbal (Lisbon, Portugal)
  • Devonport Dockyard, located in the city of Plymouth, England in the county of Devon is the largest naval base in Western Europe. It has 15 dry docks, four miles (6 km) of waterfront, 25 tidal berths, five basins and covers 650 acres (2.6 km2). It is the main refitting base for Royal Navy nuclear submarines and also handles work on frigates. It is the base for seven of the Trafalgar class nuclear-powered hunter-killer submarines and many frigates, exploiting its convenient access to the Atlantic Ocean. It supports the Vanguard class Trident missile nuclear ballistic missile submarines in a custom-built refitting dock. It houses HMS Courageous, a nuclear-powered submarine used in the Falklands War and open to the general public. Facilities in the local area also include a major naval training establishment and a base for the Royal Marines.
  • Chatham Dockyard, located on the River Medway in Kent, was established as a royal dockyard by Queen Elizabeth I in 1567. For 414 years, the Dockyard provided over 500 ships for the Royal Navy, and was forefront of shipbuilding, industrial and architectural technology. At its height, it employed over 10,000 skilled artisans and covered 400 acres (1.6 km2). The dockyard closed in 1984, and most of the Georgian dockyard is now managed as a visitor attraction by the Chatham Historic Dockyard Trust.
  • Sobrena in Brest, France. It operates 3 drydocks, up to 420 by 80 metres.
  • Sunderland, County Durham a town once hailed as the "Largest Shipbuilding Town in the World". ships were built on the at Sunderland Docks from at least 1346 and by the mid-18th century Sunderland was one of the chief shipbuilding towns in the country.
  • Constanţa Shipyard in Romania on the shores of the Black Sea Basin.
  • Mangalia Shipyard again in Romania, 45 km south of the port of Constanța.
  • Galați shipyard Galați is the largest naval shipyard on the Danube, given its strategic positioning inland but with access to the sea through either Sulina or Danube-Black Sea canal its output ranges from large tankers to research vessels, yachts and small coast guard patrol boats. The yard is known for taking on specialty projects and under Damen has completed over such 250 vessels since 1999.

East Asia

  • Kawasaki Shipbuilding Corporation's Kobe Shipyard & Machinery Works in Japan builds oil tankers, LNG carriers, bulk carriers, container ships, Ro/Ro vessels, jetfoils and warships for the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
  • Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding's Tamano Works builds bulk carriers, ore carriers, crude oil tankers, oil product carriers, LNG carriers, LPG carriers, reefers, container ships, pure car carriers, cargo ships, patrol vessels, ocean surveillance ships, training vessels, fishery patrol boats and fishing boats
  • Mitsubishi Heavy Industries's Nagasaki Shipyard & Machinery Works primarily produces specialized commercial vessels, including LNG carriers, oil tankers and passenger cruise ships
  • Hyundai Heavy Industries Ulsan Shipyard & Gunsan shipyard, in South Korea, is currently the largest in the world and has the capability to build a variety of vessels including Commercial Cargo, FPSO offshore, container ship, LNG Carrier, Car carriers, Tankers like VLCC & ULCC, Iron ore carrier and Naval vessels like Aegis destroyers & submarines.
  • Hyundai Samho Heavy Industries Samho shipyard near Mokpo 4th largest South Korean shipyard for VLCC Oil tankers, container ships & LNG, Offshore, Subsidiary of Hyundai heavy industries.
  • Hyundai Mipo dockyard, Ulsan bay shipyard chemical ships, LPG carriers, Special ships. Subsidiary of Hyundai Heavy Industries
  • CSBC Corporation, Taiwan,in Taiwan, is a private company that produces ships for civilian and military use. It was a state-owned enterprise of Taiwan (Republic of China) but transitioned to private ownership via an IPO in 2008. It is headquartered in Kaohsiung and shipyards in Kaohsiung and Keelung.
  • Yantai Raffles Shipyard, in Yantai, China, is that country's largest offshore builder. It employs the 20,000 ton crane Taisun, the holder of the Heavy Lift World Record. Yantai Raffles' portfolio includes offshore platforms, pipe lay and other specialized vessels.
  • Jiangnan Shipyard, in Shanghai, China, is a subsidiary of China State Shipbuilding Corporation that produces both military and civilian ships. Its headquarters and main shipyard are based in Shanghai, with subsidiary shipyards in Shanghai and Chongqing.
  • Bohai Shipyard, in Huludao, China, is a subsidiary of China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation that produces military (including nuclear powered vessels) and civilian ships.

South East Asia

Visakhapatnam Shipyard
  • Keppel Shipyard(Singapore)
  • Kinabalu North Shipyard & Maritime (Sabah, Malaysia)
  • ST Engineering Marine (Singapore)
  • Jurong Shipyard Pte Ltd (Singapore)
  • Penguin Shipyard International, a subsidiary of Penguin International Limited (Singapore)
  • Hanjin shipyard in Subic, Zambales, Philippines
  • Selat Melaka Shipbuilding Corporation (Malaysia)
  • PT Surya Prima Bahtera Heavy Industries, in Batam, Indonesia.
  • The Bangkok Dock Company Sattahip, Thailand
  • Marsun Company Limited (MCL) Samutprakarn, Thailand
  • Marine Acme Thai Dockyard (MAT) Samutprakarn, Thailand
  • Bason Shipyard, in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, is a long-standing builder that was established by the French government in April, 1863 to repair warships and merchant vessels. Aside from its main function of building and repairing naval vessels, Bason also offers service to local and foreign customers from Southeast Asia and Europe.
  • PT. Dok Duasatu Nusantara in Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • PT Kim Seah Shipyard Indonesia in Batam, Indonesia, a subsidiary of Penguin International Limited.
  • PT Karyasindo Samudra Biru Shipyard in Batam, Indonesia, a well-established steel and aluminium shipbuilder in the region.

South Asia and the Middle East

Cranes in Cochin Shipyard (India).
Dhaka Shipyard
Dhaka Shipyard – welding propellers
  • Haque Dockyard, situated in the capital Dhaka, one of the oldest and trusted name in shipbuilding sector of Bangladesh.
  • FMC Dockyard is one of the largest shipyard of Bangladesh, located in Eastern Bank of the Karnaphuli river in Chittagong. The dockyard has its own forward and backward linkage.
  • Lavgan Dockyard Pvt. Ltd. India's newest ship repair facility (operational from June 2014). 106m x 26m Syncrolift and side transfer system.
  • Western Marine Shipyard, a leading shipyard in Bangladesh based in Chittagong. The shipyard has been exporting ships and vessels to a number of European, Asian and African countries.
  • Khulna Shipyard is the oldest shipyard in Bangladesh, situated in Khulna. It mainly produces warships for Bangladesh Navy. Recently it also started to build commercial vessels like cargo ship, container, oil tanker for local buyers.
  • Ananda Shipyard and Shipways, one of the largest shipyards in Bangladesh, located in Narayanganj. It is a 100% export oriented shipyard.
  • Pipavav Shipyard in Gujarat, India, is the leading, modern and largest engineering facility in the business of ships and offshore platforms construction, repair and conversion, heavy engineering and offshore engineering in South Asia.
  • Colombo Dockyard in Colombo, Sri Lanka, is the largest engineering facility in the business of ship repair, shipbuilding, heavy engineering and offshore engineering in Sri Lanka.
  • NorthStar Shipbuilding Pvt Limited in New Mumbai, India, is one of the leading shipyard in India for small and mid-size ships.
  • Sulkha Shipyard builds a wide variety of ships. It has been in operation for 500 years.
  • Cochin Shipyard in Kochi, India, is that country's largest shipyard. It is building the Vikrant class aircraft carrier.
  • Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers is located in India. It is owned by the Government of India and is constructing the Shardul class Large landing ship tank for the Indian Navy.
  • Karachi Shipyard and Naval Dockyard in Karachi, Pakistan, is that country's first and oldest yard. It constructs cargo ships, tugboats, support vessels, and warships.
  • Mazagaon Dockyard, operated by state-owned Mazagaon Dock Limited, is one of India's largest shipyards. It constructs a variety of ships both for the defence and civilian sector. The dockyard is known for constructing Britain's HMS Trincomalee. Currently the shipyard is building three Shivalik class frigates and three Kolkata class destroyers for the Indian Navy.
  • The beach at Alang in the Indian state of Gujarat is the site of a large complex of shipbreaking yards. In 2010, the yard dismantled 357 ships; on average the yard processes 28–30 ships a month.
  • The Jebel Ali and Dubai ports in the UAE are capable of handling, constructing and repairing large ships. They also provide dry dock facilities.
  • The gate 7 of Shuwaikh port in the Kuwait has facility for repairing ships. They also provide dry dock facilities.
  • Lavgan Dockyard Pvt. Ltd. India's newest ship repair facility (operational from June 2014). 106m x 26m Syncrolift and side transfer system.

See also

External links

  • Shipbuilding History – extensive collection of information about North American shipyards, including over 500 pages of US shipyard construction records
  • Shipyards United States – from GlobalSecurity.org


Uses material from the Wikipedia article Shipyard, released under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license.